Preventive medicine or techniques are two kind, there are primary and secondary, in primary preventive stage prevent before create a disease and in secondary stage keep the disease under control. Also we can discuss like as primary prevention is as immunization, not to allow person to start smocking, secondary prevention like as measures are aimed at limiting the impact of established disease.
Most of the infectious disease is attributable to public health measures, especially immunization, improved sanitation and better nutrition.
Immunization remains the best means of preventing many infectious diseases, in the United States childhood immunization has resulted in near elimination of measles, mumps, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus and pertussis. Substantial vaccine preventable morbidity and mortality continue to occur among adults from vaccine-preventable disease such as hepatitis, A, hepatitis B,influenza, pneumococcal infections. Strategies have also been proposed to improve influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide, and hepatitis B targeted vaccination, in other words, improve coverage among those adults aged 65 years or younger who are at high risk in general include increasing community demand for infection with H5N1 avian influenza in Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China and Colombia, with mortality rate of 50 percent.
Nicotine of cigarette is highly addictive raises brain, levels of dopamine and produce withdrawal symptoms on discontinuation. Smoking prevalence rates have been increasing among high school and college students. There is also continued use of smokeless tobacco particularly among young people. Smokers have twice the risk of fatal heart disease, lung cancer, mouth cancer, throat, esophagus, pancreas, and kidney bladder and cervix higher incidence of stroke and peptic ulcers.
Cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease and stroke represent two of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries.
Elevated plasma homocystein may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Elevated level can be reducing with folate and pyridoxine treatment and with smoking cessation. But their clinical significance is unknown.
Evidence for the effectiveness of statin-type dgugs is better than for the other classes of lipid-lowering agents. Statin also reduce cardiovascular events for patients with diabetes. For patients with no previous history of cardiovascular events, statins reduced coronary events for men, but less evidence is available for women.
Improved diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is a major cause of the recent decline in stroke deaths. An invention that included patient education and provider education was more effective than provider education alone in achieving control of hypertension.
Low dose aspirin reduces stroke but not myocardial infarction in middle aged women.
Lack of sufficient physical activity is the second most important contributor to preventable deaths, trailing only tobacco use. Exercise may be benefited those with chronic disease. Some physical activity is always preferable to a sedentary life style. For home bound elderly who have limited mobility and strength such physical activity could focus on functional fitness, Such as mobility transfers and performing activities of daily living.
Overweigh and obesity
Obesity is now a true epidemic and public health crisis that both clinicians and patients must face. Prevention of overweight and obesity involves both increasing physically activity and dietary modification to reduce caloric intake. Clinical can help guide patient to develop personalized eating plans to reduce energy intake.
Mortality rates of cancer have begun to decrease, part of this decrease results from reductions in tobacco use. Since cigarettes smoking is the most important preventable cause of cancer.
Prevention and management of physical or sexual abuse in particular routine assessment of women for risk of domestic violence and neglect of older adults are serious under-recognized problems.
Alcohol and illicit drugs,
Several pharmacologic agents are effective in reducing alcohol consumption. In acute alcohol detoxification standard treatment regiments use long acting benzodiazepines the preferred medications for alcohol detoxification, because they can be given on a fixed schedule or through front loading or symptom-triggered regiments.